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杨牧青:以甲骨文境象漫游上古文化文明

Yang MuQing :Roaming ancient culture and civilization with the phase shape of realm of Oracle Bone Inscriptions

这篇文是基于对中国书法、绘画艺术的创作提升和人类上古文化谱系课题研究过程中一些学术探究与理论认知的粗略整理,是水墨巴蜀之古脉今承·杨牧青书画上古文化艺术作品巴蜀邀请展系列活动和水墨三晋、水墨京津冀·杨牧青书画文化行活动中以主题讲座交流形式分享的主要内容之一,在现场配合数百张实景实物图片和书法绘画图照展示的情况下,可以此概观有关以甲骨文为线索的古文字与上古文化文明的基本情况,这对于弘扬、发掘、传承、发展中华优秀传统文化和新时代的文化自信及讲好中国故事有积极的促动意义,这是文化人的情怀和使命。

This article is based on the rough arrangement of some academic exploration and theoretical cognition in the process of improving the creation of Chinese calligraphy and painting art and the research of human ancient culture pedigree. It is a series of Bashu invitation exhibition activities of Yang MuQing’s calligraphy and painting works of ancient times, and one of the main contents of the exchange in the form of theme lecture exchange in the activities of ink painting and calligraphy in the“three Jin”, “Beijing Tianjin Hebei of Yang MuQing calligraphy and painting cultural activities”. With hundreds of real pictures and pictures of calligraphy and paintings on the spot, we can have an overview of the basic situation of ancient Chinese characters and ancient culture and civilization with Oracle Bone Inscriptions as clues. This is of positive significance for carrying forward, exploring, inheriting and developing Chinese excellent traditional culture and cultural self-confidence in the new era, and telling Chinese stories well. This is the feelings and mission of cultural people Life.

所有的学问和思想弄到最后可能就是几句话,一段文字,几篇文稿,或数千言而已。譬如,用一句“杜甫的死亡仅是个人悲剧,不影响权贵的进程,仅代表文人的无奈”对唐代的伟大的现实主义诗人、诗圣杜甫进行表述,并用甲骨金文的书法形式写出来(2018年夏创作/五平尺),以寄怀我对“诗圣”的知见。又如,王羲之的《兰亭序》324字;孙过庭的《书谱》3500多字;康有为的《广艺舟双楫》57000多字;佛陀的《心经》260字;六祖的《坛经》12000多字,老子的《道德经》5000多字;孔子的《论语》15900多字……总觉得文字越多越说不清,文字越少又越讲不明。于是,从古到今,诸多学人的几万、几十万、上百万乃至千万字的各种文论著作就堆砌案头了,谁之言可会心耶?

All knowledge and ideas may end up in a few words, a paragraph, a few manuscripts, or thousands of words. For example, the sentence “Du Fu’s death is only a personal tragedy, does not affect the process of power, only represents the helplessness of literati” to describe the great realist poet and poet Du Fu of Tang Dynasty, and write it in the calligraphy form of oracle bone inscriptions (created in summer 2018 / 0.56 square metre), in order to express my knowledge of “the sage of poetry”.For example, there are 324 words in preface to Lanting by Wang Xizhi, 3500 words in Shupu by sun Guoting, 57000 words in guangyizhoushuangji by Kang Youwei, 260 words in Xinjing by Buddha, 12000 words in Tanjing by liuzu, 5000 words in Daodejing by Laozi, and 15900 words in Analects of Confucius…I always feel that the more words you write, the more you can’t speak clearly, and the less words you have, the more unclear you can speak. Therefore, from ancient times to the present, many scholars’ works of literary theory of tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, millions and even tens of millions of words have been piled up on the desk. Who can understand what they say?

甲骨文是刻写在龟甲兽骨上的一种古老的文字,是中国现行汉字早期比较成熟、体系比较完整的文字形式。约清末光绪年间的1899年秋季被金石学家、国子监祭酒王懿荣发现后公诸于世,得以刘鹗、罗振玉、王国维、郭沫若、董作宾、唐兰、商承祚、于省吾、饶宗颐、陈梦家、胡厚宣、徐中舒、李学勤和日本高田忠周、岛邦男、永田英正、赤井清美、师春妙石及加拿大许进雄等中外学者的重视和研究,至今历120多年,论著颇丰,成果显著,形成了一门国际性的学术研究内容,对中华文明探源及世界文化溯源有极其重要的作用(可参见《杨牧青:从甲骨文字探索中国书法之美——怎么写好甲骨文书法》课件)。

Oracle bone inscriptions are ancient characters written on tortoise shells and animal bones. They are relatively mature and complete characters in the early stage of current Chinese characters.About the autumn of 1899 in the Guangxu period of the late

Qing Dynasty, it was discovered by Wang Yirong, a epigraphist and the head of Guozijian, and then made public, received the attention and research of Liu e, Luo Zhenyu, Wang Guowei, Guo Moruo, Dong Zuobin, Tang Lan, Shang chengzuo, Yu Shengwu, Rao Zongyi, Chen Mengjia, Hu houxuan, Xu Zhongshu, Li Xueqin, and Japanese and foreign scholars such as takada Zhongzhou, Shimbun, Yongtian Yingzheng, chijing Qingmei, Shichun Miaoshi and Xu (JinxiongHsu Chin-hsiung) of Canada.It has been more than 120 years. It has made great achievements and formed an international academic research content, which plays an extremely important role in exploring the source of Chinese civilization and world culture (see “Yang MuQing: exploring the beauty of Chinese calligraphy from the oracle bone inscriptions – how to write good oracle bone calligraphy” courseware).

以河南安阳殷墟出土数量很多的甲骨材料来看,距今约2900多年至3500多年,其以商代第十九位王盘庚至末代第三十一位王帝辛(殷纣王)二百七十三年历八世十二王为重点,即甲骨学大家董作宾先生依据世系、称谓、贞人等十项标准划分的“五期说”。

According to a large number of oracle bone materials unearthed from Yin Ruins in Anyang, Henan Province, about 2900 to 3500 years ago, these oracle bone materials mainly focus on Pan Geng, the 19th king of Shang Dynasty, and Xin (King Zhou of Yin), the 31st king of the last dynasty,about 273 years, 12 emperors of eight dynasties. Mr. Dong Zuobin, a famous scholar of oracle bone, divided the theory of “five periods” according to ten criteria, such as lineage, appellation and Zhenren.
除安阳殷墟甲骨文密集出土之外,在河南偃师、洛阳、辉县和郑州二里岗及山西洪洞、北京昌平、陕西周原等地也有陆续发现。如,距今4500年至5000年之间分别为陕西岐山县古周原凤雏村和陕西西安市西郊斗门乡花园村原始社会遗址中的甲骨刻字(符)。至今约有15万片龟甲,累计文字约100万之多,整理出来的约6211个字(见沈建华、曹锦炎编著《甲骨文字形表/增订版209页》),按常说,约4500多个字,被释读的大概约1200多个字左右,能被当作文字确认的约2500多个字。

In addition to the unearthed oracle bone inscriptions of Yin Ruins in Anyang, other places in Yanshi, Luoyang, Huixian and Zhengzhou Er Li Gang of Henan,and in Shanxi Hongdong, Beijing Changping, Shanxi Zhou Yuan have been discovered.For example, from 4500 to 5000 years ago, they are the inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells in Fengchu village of ancient Zhou Dynasty in Qishan County and Huayuan village in Doumen Township, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province. Up to now, there are about 150000 pieces of tortoise shells, with a total of about 1 million characters. There are about 6211 characters sorted out (see table of Oracle Bone glyphs compiled by Shen Jianhua and Cao Jinyan/ revised edition, page 209). According to the common saying, there are more than 4500 characters, about 1200 words can be interpreted and more than 2500 words can be confirmed as writing characters.

当然,甲骨文也不是中国最古老的文字,还有如5000年前的浙江良渚遗址、7000年前的安徽蚌埠双墩遗址、8000年前的河南舞阳贾湖遗址等图纹符号,均一度被认为是中国最早的文字形式。另外,古老的岩画、陶器玉器的图纹刻画都是早于甲骨文的,是先人们利用当时所能利用的材料记录下来的文化信息,可判定是甲骨文、水书、彝文及金文、简书的重要源头。

Of course, oracle bone inscriptions are not the oldest written characters in China. For example, the Liangzhu site in Zhejiang Province 5000 years ago, the Shuangdun site in Bengbu, Anhui Province, 7000 years ago, and the Jiahu Site in Wuyang, Henan Province, 8000 years ago were once considered to be the earliest written forms in China. In addition, the ancient rock paintings, the graphic depiction on pottery and jade are all earlier than the oracle bone inscriptions, which are the cultural information recorded by the ancestors using the materials available at that time. It can be determined that they are the important sources of oracle bone inscriptions, Shui script, Yi language, Jin and Jian script.

按历代学者研究的通行说法,甲骨文是“中国商朝晚期王室用于占卜记事而在龟甲或兽骨上契刻的文字。”按我对甲骨文结合青铜器铭文、古图纹、古崖画和史料文献等综合研究认为,甲骨文不是商王朝因为占卜记事的需要而契刻在龟甲兽骨上的文字,它的文字性质不是因卜辞而文字的,是商王朝当时为了保护保存历史文化档案资料而刻写在龟甲兽骨上的一种文字,即“杨牧青甲骨文非卜辞说”是也!详可参阅《杨牧青:甲骨文字解读方法和思想要有新的突破》、《杨牧青甲骨文非卜辞说:打破思想禁锢突破认识瓶颈》、《杨牧青甲骨文非卜辞说:当世甲骨文解读与研究误差原因有三》、《杨牧青:甲骨文非卜辞说之叙事曲第一、二、三、四、五篇》等文稿。

According to the common view of scholars in the past dynasties, oracle bone inscriptions are “inscriptions on tortoise shells or animal bones used by the royal family in the late Shang Dynasty for divination and recording.” According to my comprehensive research on oracle bone inscriptions combined with bronze inscriptions, ancient pictures, ancient cliff paintings and historical documents, I think that oracle bone inscriptions are not written on tortoise shells and animal bones because of the need of divination and recording of events. Its character is not written because of divination, but is written on tortoise shells and animal bones in order to protect and preserve historical and cultural archives. That is,“Yang MuQing’s theory that oracle bone inscriptions are not used for divination ”. For details, please refer to ‘Yang MuQing: a new breakthrough in the interpretation methods and thoughts of oracle bone inscriptions’, ‘Yang MuQing’s theory that oracle bone inscriptions are not used for divination: breaking the ideological shackles and breaking through the bottleneck of cognition’; ‘Yang MuQing’s theory that oracle bone inscriptions are not used for divination: three reasons for the errors in the interpretation and research of oracle bone inscriptions’, and ‘Yang MuQing: the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth chapters of the ballad that oracle bone inscriptions are not used for divination’and so on.

境是境界、意境,是心意对象之世界;象是形象、图象,是“一阖一辟谓之变,往来不穷谓之通,见乃谓之象。”和“惚兮恍兮,其中有象。”的象;象亦可谓之相;境象,是境界的一种相状!漫游不是“随意游玩,漫无目的游走”样子,是“读万卷书,行万里路”状态,是在学以养正,学以悟道,学以传教播化中的漫游。上古是一个针对文化历史年限的时间术语,可称为上古时期、上古时代、远古时代、远古时期,按院科学教的说法是“史前时代”,或以“神话时代”称谓。上古,按我的意见是,在没有出现具体纪年编年的文化历史时期(如中国以西周共和元年为界线,即公元前841年。)均可视之为“上古”。

‘jing’ is the realm, the artistic conception, and the world of the object of mind; ‘xiang’ is the phase shape,such as the phase shape of ‘one closure and one creation is the change, endless communication is the connection, appearance is the phase shape’and ‘trance, trance, there is a phase shape’.The phase shape of realm is a phase of realm! Roaming is not ‘random play, aimless walk’, but a realm of ‘reading thousands of books and traveling thousands of miles’. It is a roaming in the process of learning to cultivate righteousness, to understand Tao and to spread enlightenment. Ancient times is a time term for cultural and historical years, which can be called ancient times. According to the scientific education of the Academy, it is called “prehistoric era” or “mythical age”. In ancient times, according to my opinion, there was no specific chronology in the cultural and historical periods (for example, China took the first year of the Republic of the Western Zhou Dynasty as the boundary, that is, 841 BC) They can be regarded as “ancient times”.

人类的文化历史是传承的,是在不断变化中产生不同的呈现。今知人类已达两百多万年之久的生活生存,在没有文字的人类依然有其文化历史,不要轻易的用“史前”去划分。人类的文化历史是连续不断的,不要盲目的用文字的诞生与否来界定人类的文明标准。没有发现不能等于上古人类就没有文化文明,不要用局限的、狭隘的、机械的、唯物的思想去认知、框架人类的过去的一切啊!

The cultural history of human beings is inherited, which will produce different presentations in the constant changes. Today we know that human beings have been living for more than two million years. In the era of no written records, human beings still have their cultural history. We should not divide them by “prehistory”. The cultural history of mankind is continuous. We should not blindly define the standard of human civilization with the birth of words. No discovery can’t mean that ancient human beings did not have cultural civilization. Don’t use limited, narrow, mechanical and materialistic ideas to understand and frame all the past of mankind!
首先要知道,荡荡天门万古开,几人归去几人来。如今生活在客观物质世界中这个既能胡整作践也能发明创造的生命体“人”,在人的称谓未出现之前叫什么呢?
First of all, we should know that the gate of heaven will open forever. How many people will go back and how many will come. Now living in the objective material world, the living body “human” can not only practice but also invent and create, What was it called before the appearance of human appellation?

人之前的人叫神,人即神,神即人,皇、帝、王、公、侯、子、黎、民、百姓、人民、公民、无业游民、达官贵人、乞丐走卒等只不过是对人的不同历史阶段的称谓和不同的社会阶层划分而已。人是人的神,神是人的神。人是人,人不是动物,不要拿禽兽类型来归属人类是动物的属性或纲目。

Before the appearance of human appellation, human is called God, and God is human. Emperor, king, Duke, marquis, common people, citizen, jobless vagabond, dignitary, beggar and pawn are just the appellation of different historical stages and the division of different social classes. Human is human’s God, and God is human’s God. Human is human, human is not animal, do not take the animal type to belong to human is the attribute or compendium of animal.

神话就是人话,人话就是人的历史与文化的精神传承。中国的神话就是中国的历史,中国的神话就是中国的文化,中国的文化就是中国人百千万年以来的自信力量!

Myth is human language, which is the spiritual inheritance of human history and culture. Chinese mythology is China’s history, China’s myth is China’s culture, and Chinese culture is the self-confidence power of Chinese people for millions of years!

古中国的“神”不是宗教化的虚构之神,是中国先民内在的精神动力和文化延续!是先民高智慧的人对神识、对神明的认识,所以《黄帝内经》有“上古真人论”。兹备录如下:黄帝曰:余闻上古之人,春秋皆度百岁,而动作不衰;今时之人,年半百而动作皆衰者,时世异耶,人将失之耶。岐伯对曰:上古之人,其知道者,法于阴阳,和于术数,食饮有节,起居有常,不妄作劳,故能形与神俱,而尽终其天年,度百岁乃去。今时之人不然也,以酒为浆,以妄为常,醉以入房,以欲竭其精,以耗散其真,不知持满,不时御神,务快其心,逆于生乐,起居无节,故半百而衰也。黄帝曰:余闻上古有真人者,提挈天地,把握阴阳,呼吸精气,独立守神,肌肉若一,故能寿敝天地,无有终时,此其道生。中古之时,有至人者,淳德全道,和于阴阳,调于四时,去世离俗,积精全神,游行天地之间,视听八达之外,此盖益其寿命而强者也,亦归于真人。其次有圣人者,处天地之和,从八风之理,适嗜欲于世俗之间。无恚嗔之心,行不欲离于世被服章,举不欲观于俗,外不劳形于事,内无思想之患,以恬愉为务,以自得为功,形体不敝,精神不散,亦可以百数。其次有贤人者,法则天地,象似日月,辨列星辰,逆从阴阳,分别四时,将从上古合同于道,亦可使益寿而有极时。

The “God” of ancient China is not a religious and fictional God, but the spiritual power and cultural continuity of Chinese ancestors! Therefore, Huangdi Neijing has “the theory of ancient human beings”. Here are the following records: the Yellow Emperor said: I heard that people in ancient times were 100 years old through spring and autumn, and their movements were not bad; those of today’s people who were half a hundred years old and their movements were all failing would be lost because of different times.Qi Bo said to him: the ancient people, who knew how to learn from Yin and Yang, were in harmony with the number of skills, ate and drink regularly, lived a regular life, and did not work rashly. Therefore, they were able to keep both the body and the spirit, and spent their whole life in their lifetime. Today’s people, otherwise, take wine as the pulp, take arrogance as the norm, get drunk to have sex, exhaust their essence with desire, dissipate their true Qi for the sake of quick desire, thus dissipating the true Qi. They do not know how to control themselves, and do not often control their own mind. For the sake of instant happiness, they violate the normal law of life and have no principles of life. Therefore, they grow old at the age of 50.

The Yellow Emperor said: I heard that there were people who had Tao in ancient times. They grasped the law of yin and Yang in nature, breathed the subtle spirit of nature, kept the spirit independently, and integrated inside and outside, so that they could live together with the heaven. In the middle ages, there were people who had the highest moral integrity, who were harmonious with Yin and Yang, and who were transferred to the four seasons. They passed away from the secular world, accumulated their essence, and traveled between the heaven and the earth. In addition to hearing and hearing, they benefited their life, and the strong also belonged to the people of Tao. Secondly, there are sages who live in the harmony of heaven and earth, conform to the laws of nature, and have appropriate desires between the secular world. They have no resentment and are satisfied with their behavior. They do not pay attention to or participate in the world’s disturbances. They do not feel tired because of something. They have no obstacles in thinking. They takes pleasure as their duty and takes self satisfaction as their credit. They are not depressed in body and spirit. They can also be counted in hundreds.Once again, there is a realm, that is the person of virtue, who take the road of heaven and earth movement left by the ancients as the rule. Keep the harmony between the sun and the moon. To distinguish the orbit of stars, they can judge the exact time of the cycle of the four seasons and predict the good and bad fortune of the world. they hope that by learning the laws of heaven and earth handed down by ancient sages, they can finally achieve harmony with heaven and earth. Through surface imitation, their lifespan can also be increased, but it is also limited.